dieffenbachiae [27]) was used in this study (4); this strain is referred to below as strain Xcd-lux. 7). Like most websites we use cookies. FIND ME AT:https://www.instagram.com/plantmeashleyhttps://www.etsy.com/shop/plantmeashleyHey! Individual guttation bacteria had no effect on the growth or survival of Xcd-lux when they were coinoculated into the filter-sterilized guttation fluids (Fig. Each bacterial strain was grown for 2 days at 28°C on YDC medium plates, the cells were suspended in sterile phosphate buffer, and the concentration was adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.25 (equivalent to ∼3.0 × 108 to 4.0 × 108 CFU/ml). The nonwounded plants were treated in the same way, as described above. While much is known about biochemical and physiological events in host-bacterium interactions, biotic factors in guttation fluids have been inadequately studied. Treatments which were included in this test on A. andraeanum were water treated controls (inoculated and noninoculated), two rates of fosetyl aluminum in two formulations (Aliette 80WP and Aliette … One hundred microliters of each filtered sample was removed from one replicate tube for each of eight cultivars within 20 min after inoculation and used to estimate the initial Xcd-lux population size by dilution plate counting. dieffenbachiae. Progress 01/15/02 to 09/30/05 Outputs Biological control agents (BCAs) protect anthurium plants from bacterial blight and accelerate growth of microplants in laboratory and greenhouse experiments, but the biocontrol using these bacteria have been evaluated in only one field experiment. Inhibitory effects of various bacterial mixtures on growth of Xcd-lux in filter-sterilized guttation fluid. " Management of bacterial blight of anthurium " 另存为: AGRIS_应用 RIS 尾注(XML) Growing plants under plastic or glass houses coupled with drip irrigation rather than overhead or sprinkler irrigation reduced the spread of the bacteria through aerosols and water splash and significantly reduced the incidence of blight in anthurium seedling culture (29). Survival of Xcd-lux in filter-sterilized and nonsterile guttation fluids from various anthurium cultivars. Similar results were obtained in the second trial of this experiment. BACTERIAL DISEASES OF ANTHURIUM, DIEFFENBACHIA, PHILODENDRON, AND SYNGONIUM Species of Anthurium, Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, and Syngonium are popular foliage plants cultivated in interiorscapes of homes, offices, and malls throughout the world. Heat treatment by water, air or vapor has been effectively used for many years to disinfest propagative plant … Novelanthurium hybrids produced by tissue culture will be indexed for disease and nematode … This suggests that there are key component strains (species) in a bacterial community that are responsible for inhibition and that a lack of the key organisms in bacterial mixtures eliminates the inhibitory effects on the pathogen. Physiological events induced by the host defense mechanisms did not explain the observations made with anthuriums, since spontaneous disease suppression occurred in highly susceptible cultivars as well as resistant cultivars and the suppression was not accompanied by rapid necrotic reactions, which are typical of hypersensitive responses. This project laid the groundwork for future field experiments. A sudden decrease in the pH during incubation is unlikely since anthurium guttation fluid is highly buffered, possibly as a result of ions in the xylem sap that form carbonates (7). Biostimulation was observed on all anthurium cultivars treated with the beneficial strains. The youngest leaf of each plant was disinfested by spraying 70% ethanol onto the upper and lower surfaces and wiping the surfaces with Kimwipe tissue soaked with 70% ethanol. Then 10 μl of an Xcd-lux cell suspension was inoculated into each tube, and the survival of Xcd-lux was examined after 7 days of incubation as described above. phaseoli), pseudomonads (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas syringaepv. The tubes were incubated at 28°C as described above. Twelve plants were wounded by notching the two youngest leaves on each plant, and 12 plants were not wounded. The densities of Xcd-lux and total bacterial cells were determined 3 days (data not shown) and 7 and 14 days after inoculation. Bars = 5 cm. Growth and survival of Xcd-lux and guttation bacteria in filter-sterilized guttation fluid. Mixture E was the least inhibitory of the six bacterial mixtures tested, although it consisted of four strains that were isolated from an inhibitory guttation fluid from cultivar Marian Seefurth. For comparison, 15-μl portions of the suspension were inoculated into equivalent amounts of sterile distilled water and phosphate buffer (two tubes each). The leaves were subsequently inoculated with Xcd-lux. We attempted to study the antibacterial activity of rhizospheric Bacillus spp., to curb the bacterial blight of anthurium caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. In addition, neither CaCl2 nor MgCl2 reversed the inhibition. Differential susceptibility of anthurium cultivars to bacterial blight in foliar and systemic infection phases. The bags were removed from the leaves early in the morning on the following day, and guttation fluids were collected individually. Role of indigenous leaf-inhabiting bacteria in suppression of anthurium blight. The relationship between cultivar susceptibility and bacterial communities should be studied further with more cultivars from many sources. This indicates that guttation fluid itself does not inhibit the pathogen; instead, biotic factors are involved in the inhibition. After 7 and 14 days of incubation, the cell densities of Xcd-lux were determined by dilution plate counting by using 100 μl of guttation fluid from each tube. Then, 15 μl of an Xcd-lux cell suspension and 15 μl of a mixture of cells of the five guttation bacteria were added to the guttation fluid in order to examine the effects of the three organic nutrients (final concentration of each nutrient, 0.1%) on inhibition of Xcd-lux by the guttation bacteria. Sterile distilled water was applied to nontreated plants. This fact helps explain why infections occasionally do not occur in some susceptible plants even after a large inoculum of the pathogen is applied to the leaves. means you agree to our use of cookies. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures in the glasshouse were 18 to 22 and 26 to 30°C, respectively. University of Hawaii, CTAHR IP-17. Remove affected parts of the plant and toss them. The white background illumination is bioluminescence from Xcd-lux recorded on X-ray film. dieffenbachiae (McCulloch and Pirone 1939) Dye (= Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Effects of guttation bacteria on survival of Xcd-lux in the filter-sterilized guttation fluid. This pH range is not harmful to the pathogen (1). The same principle may apply for the enhanced survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluid containing peptone. dieffenbachiae has provided valuable information on the infection process in bacterial blight, especially during the latent systemic phase of infection (4). bacterial leaf blight of anthurium Supawadee Kumsingkaew* and Angsana Akarapisan Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand Supawadee Kumsingkaew and Angsana Akarapisan (2014) Efficiency of Bacillus subtilis EPB14 as biocontrol to control bacterial leaf blight of anthurium. Hot water and hot air treatments were evaluated for disinfesting anthurium, Anthurium andraeanum Lind., stem cuttings of the bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar dieffenbachiae (Xa pv. Moreover, only the pathogen was eliminated from a mixture containing the pathogen and the five guttation bacteria, and the populations of the five guttation bacteria were sustained for 14 days in the guttation fluid. There are over 13,661,000 records available in CAB Direct | Last updated on December 24, 2020. However, the guttation bacteria were applied at a total inoculum density of ∼108 CFU/ml, and we expect that greater disease suppression could be achieved by using higher inoculum densities. Once a plant is infected with bacterial blight, it’s possible to salvage healthy portions and keep it alive. All of the plants were later inoculated with Xcd-lux. On the next day, leaves were wounded by notching them (arrowheads), and the same bacterial mixture was placed on the wounds. Inhibition of the pathogen in nonfiltered guttation fluids did not appear to be related to the pH values of the guttation fluids, since the pH values ranged from 5.5 to 7.5 during the 2-week incubation period. Google Scholar. Symptoms: The first visible symptoms are yellowed (chlorotic), water-soaked lesions along the leaf margins that grow rapidly to form dead (necrotic) V-shaped lesions characteristic of this disease (Figure 3). It is unlikely that the inhibition of Xcd-lux was caused by production of antibiotics or other toxic agents by resident bacteria, because none of the filter-sterilized guttation fluid samples was as inhibitory as nonfiltered guttation fluids containing bacterial communities were. Many thanks are due to Allison K. Nishii and Tomie K. Shiraishi for their technical assistance. 4). By 14 days after inoculation, the sizes of the populations of Xcd-lux in the guttation fluids containing glucose, peptone, and yeast extract were not significantly different than the sizes of the population of Xcd-lux in the fluid containing no guttation bacteria. , Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews an uninfected one identify and treat diseases that may be encountered during greenhouse. Shaded conditions slows the progression of foliar infection by Xcd-lux other aroids transmission of blight from an infected leaf an! 1.485 ml was placed in a second tube relationship of aerosols to anthurium leaves,.. Total bacterial cells were determined three cultivars are resistant ( tolerant ) cultivars have been grown widely in years... And survival of Xcd-lux in filter-sterilized guttation fluid was placed in a sterile tube... Infected by the Student-Newman-Keuls ( SNK ) test principle may apply for the mixture containing the five strains... 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